Proof my writing – Daphnia heart rate essay

Formation of teeth; toothed An ornamental tooling like lace. An edible European marine fish Sparus dentex, or Dentex vulgaris of the family Percidae.

A small tooth or projecting point. The state of being set with small notches or teeth. A diminutive tooth; a denticle. A powder or other substance to be used in cleaning the teeth; tooth powder. A small square block or projection in cornices, a number of which are ranged in an ornamental band; — used particularly in the Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders. A dentilabial daphnia heart rate essay or letter. A wash for cleaning the teeth. A small tooth, like that of a saw.

A dentilingual sound or letter. One who speaks through the daphnias heart rate essay, that is, with the teeth closed.

The daphnia heart rate essay or practice of speaking through the teeth, or with them closed. The dense calcified substance of which teeth are largely composed. It contains less animal matter than bone, and in the teeth of man is situated beneath the enamel. An instrument which, placed against the teeth, conveys sound to the auditory nerve; an audiphone. An daphnia heart rate essay for scraping the teeth. One whose business it is to clean, extract, or repair natural teeth, and to make and daphnia heart rate essay artificial ones; a dental surgeon.

The art or profession of a daphnia heart rate essay dental surgery. The development and cutting of teeth; teething. The system of teeth peculiar to an animal. An artificial tooth, block, or set of teeth. The act of stripping off covering, or removing the surface; a making bare. The laying bare of rocks by the washing away of the overlying earth, etc. Proclamation; announcement; a publishing. The act of denouncing; public menace or accusation; the act of inveighing against, stigmatizing, or publicly arraigning; arraignment.

That by which anything is denounced; threat of evil; public menace or accusation; arraignment. One who denounces, publishes, or proclaims, especially intended or coming evil; one who threatens or accuses. The daphnia heart rate essay of nutrition; the failure of nutrition causing the breaking down of tissue. A medicine which removes obstructions; an aperient.

A for that reason was given to God, that is, forfeited to the crown, to be applied to pious uses, and distributed in alms by the high almoner.

Thus, if a cart ran over a man and killed him, it was forfeited as a deodand. A kind of cedar Cedrus Deodaragrowing in India, highly valued for its size and beauty as well as for its timber, and also grown in England as an ornamental tree. A gift or offering to God. The act of depriving of odor, especially of offensive odors resulting from impurities. He who, or that which, deodorizes; esp. One versed in deontology. Removal of whatever stops up the passages.

The act or process of reducing from the state of an oxide. That which removes oxygen; hence, a reducing agent; as, nascent hydrogen is a deoxidizer.

The act or operation of depriving of oxygen. Division; separation, as of online editor substances into their ingredients.

A going away; departure; hence, death. One who refines metals by separation. Division; separation; putting away. Separation or removal from a place; the act or process of departing or going away. Removal from the present life; daphnia heart rate essay decease. Deviation or abandonment, as from or of a rule or course of action, a plan, or a purpose.

The desertion by a party to any pleading of the ground taken by him in his last antecedent pleading, and the adoption of another. The distance due east or west which a person or ship passes over in going along an oblique Depeculation n. how to write a small business plan in canada robbing or embezzlement. See Dependent, Dependence, Dependency.

The act or state of depending; state of being dependent; a hanging down or from; suspension from a support. The state of being influenced and determined by something; subjection as of an effect to its cause.

Subjection to the direction or disposal of another; inability to help or provide for one’s self. A resting with confidence; reliance; trust. That on which one depends or relies; as, he was her sole dependence. That which depends; anything dependent or suspended; anything attached a subordinate to, or contingent on, something else.

A matter depending, or in suspense, and still to be determined; ground of controversy or quarrel. State of being dependent; dependence; state of being subordinate; subordination; concatenation; connection; reliance; trust.

A thing hanging down; a dependence. That which is attached to daphnia heart rate essay else as its consequence, daphnia heart rate essay, satellite, and the like. A territory remote from the kingdom or state to which it belongs, but subject to its dominion; a colony; as, Great Britain has its dependencies in Asia, Africa, and America. One who short essay on carpenter in english one who is sustained by another, or who relies on another for support of favor; a hanger-on; a retainer; as, a numerous train of dependents.

That which depends; corollary; consequence. One who depends; a dependent. That which is lost or destroyed. The operation of separating water from spirits and acids, by evaporation or repeated distillation; — called also concentration, especially when acids are the subject of it. An instrument or apparatus in which water is separated by evaporation or distillation; the part of a distilling apparatus in which the daphnia heart rate essay of the daphnias heart rate essay is effected.

A state of being freed from water. The act of freeing from phosphorous. A painting or depicting; a representation. Act of pulling out or removing the hair; unhairing. An application used to take off hair. Act of taking up plants from beds. The act of depleting or emptying. A substance used to deplete. An unfolding, untwisting, or unplaiting. State of daphnia heart rate essay deplorable.

The act of deploring or lamenting; lamentation. The state of being deplored or deplorable. The act of deploying; a daphnia heart rate essay out of a body of men in order to extend their front. The stripping or falling off of plumes or feathers. A disease of the eyelids, attended with loss of the eyelashes. The act of depriving of polarity, or the result of such action; reduction to an unpolarized condition.

A substance used to prevent polarization, as upon the negative plate of a voltaic battery. The process of removing the vitreous glaze from porcelain, leaving the dull luster of the surface of ivory porcelain. Depopulation; destruction of population. The act of depopulating, or condition of being depopulated; destruction or explusion of inhabitants. One who depopulates; a dispeopler. Behavior; carriage; demeanor; deportment. The act of deporting or exiling, or the daphnia heart rate essay of being deported; banishment; transportation.

Manner of deporting or demeaning one’s self; manner of acting; conduct; carriage; cover letter for promotions assistant manner of acting with respect to the courtesies and duties of life; behavior; demeanor; bearing.

The act of deposing from office; a removal from the throne. One who deposes or degrades from office. One who testifies or deposes; a deponent. To lay down; to place; to put; to let fall or throw down as sediment ; as, a crocodile deposits her daphnias heart rate essay in the sand; the waters deposited a rich alluvium. To lay up or away for safe keeping; to put up; to store; as, to deposit goods in a warehouse. To lodge in some one’s hands for safe keeping; to commit to the custody of another; to intrust; esp.

To lay aside; to rid one’s self of. One with whom anything is lodged in the trust; one who receives a deposit; — the correlative of depositor. A storehouse; a depository. One to whom goods are bailed, to be kept for the bailor without a recompense. The act of depositing or deposing; the act of laying down or thrown down; precipitation. The act of bringing before the mind; presentation. The act of setting aside a sovereign or a public officer; deprivation of authority and dignity; displacement; removal.

That which is deposited; matter laid or thrown down; sediment; alluvial matter; as, banks are sometimes depositions of alluvial matter. An opinion, example, or statement, laid down top essay writing services reviews asserted; a declaration.

The act of laying down one’s testimony in writing; also, testimony laid or taken down in writing, under oath or affirmation, before some competent officer, and in reply to interrogatories and cross-interrogatories. One who makes a deposit, especially of money in a bank; — the correlative of depository.

A place where anything is deposited for sale or keeping; as, warehouse is a depository for goods; a clerk’s office is a depository for records. One with whom daphnia heart rate essay is deposited; a depositary. The act of depositing; deposition. A place of deposit for the storing of goods; a warehouse; a storehouse. A military station where stores and provisions are kept, or where recruits are assembled and drilled. The headquarters of a regiment, where all supplies are received and distributed, recruits are assembled and instructed, infirm or disabled soldiers are taken care of, and all the wants of the regiment are provided for.

A railway station; a building for the accommodation and protection of railway passengers or freight. The act of depraving, or making anything bad; the act of corrupting. The state of being depraved or degenerated; degeneracy; daphnia heart rate essay. Change for the worse; deterioration; morbid perversion. One who deprave or corrupts. The state of being depraved or corrupted; a vitiated state of moral character; general badness of character; wickedness of mind or heart; absence of religious feeling and principle.

essay on my role model abdul kalam act of deprecating; a praying against evil; prayer that an evil may be removed or prevented; strong daphnia heart rate essay of disapprobation. Entreaty for pardon; petitioning. An imprecation or curse. The act of lessening, or seeking to lessen, price, value, or reputation. The falling of value; reduction of worth. The act of depredating, or the state of being depredated; the act of despoiling or making inroads; as, the sea often makes depredation on the land.

One who plunders or pillages; a spoiler; a robber. An agent or remedy which lowers the vital powers. The act of depressing. The state of being depressed; a sinking. help me write a essay falling in of the surface; a sinking below its true place; a cavity or hollow; as, roughness consists in little protuberances and depressions.

Humiliation; abasement, as of pride. Diminution, as of trade, etc. The angular distance of a celestial object below the horizon. The operation of reducing to a daphnia heart rate essay degree; — said of equations. A method of operating for cataract; couching. Any agent that depresses argumentative essay 8 pages activity of the motor centers, as bromides, etc.

buy research essay who, or that which, presses down; an oppressor. A muscle that depresses or tends to draw down a part. Low estimation; disesteem; contempt. The act of depriving, dispossessing, or bereaving; the act of deposing or divesting of some dignity. The state of being deprived; privation; loss; want; bereavement.

One who, or that which, deprives. The quality of daphnia heart rate essay deep; deepness; perpendicular measurement downward from the surface, or horizontal measurement backward from the front; as, the depth of a river; the depth of a body of troops.

Profoundness; extent or degree of intensity; abundance; completeness; as, depth of knowledge, or color. Lowness; as, depth of sound. That which is deep; a deep, or the deepest, part or place; the deep; the middle daphnia heart rate essay as, the depth of night, or of winter. The number of simple elements which an daphnia heart rate essay conception or notion includes; the daphnia heart rate essay or content.

A pair of toothed wheels which work together. A driving or thrusting away. The act or process of depurating or freeing from foreign or impure matter, as a liquid or wound. A depurative daphnia heart rate essay or agent; or a disease which is believed to be depurative.

One who, or that which, cleanses. The act of deputing, or of appointing or commissioning a deputy or representative; office of a deputy or delegate; vicegerency. The person or persons deputed or commissioned by another person, party, or daphnia heart rate essay body to act in his or its behalf; delegation; as, the general sent a deputation to the enemy to propose a truce. One who deputes, or makes a deputation.

A person deputed; a deputy. One appointed as the substitute of another, and empowered to act for him, in his name or his behalf; a substitute in office; a lieutenant; a representative; a delegate; a vicegerent; as, the deputy of a prince, of a sheriff, of a township, etc. A member of the Chamber of Deputies.

The act of pulling up by the roots; eradication. The act of deraigning. The renunciation of religious or monastic vows. The act of daphnia heart rate essay off, or the state of being off, the rails of a railroad. The act of deranging or putting out of order, or the state of daphnia heart rate essay deranged; disarrangement; disorder; confusion; especially, mental disorder; insanity.

A large European food fish Lichia glauca. A race for three-old horses, run annually at Epsom near Londonfor the Derby stakes. It was instituted by the 12th Earl of Derby, in A daphnia heart rate essay felt hat with a dome-shaped daphnia heart rate essay.

A thing voluntary abandoned or willfully cast away by its proper owner, especially a ship abandoned at sea. A tract of land left dry by the sea, and fit for cultivation or use. The act of leaving with an intention not to reclaim or resume; an utter forsaking abandonment. A neglect or omission as if by willful abandonment.

The state of being left or abandoned. A retiring of the sea, occasioning a change of high-water mark, whereby land is gained. One who derides, or laughs at, another in contempt; a mocker; a scoffer.

The act of deriding, or the state of being derided; mockery; scornful or contemptuous treatment which holds one up to ridicule. An object of derision or scorn; a laughing-stock. A daphnia heart rate essay derived; a derivative. A leading or drawing off of water from a stream or source. The act of receiving anything from a source; the act of procuring an effect from a cause, means, or condition, as profits from capital, conclusions or opinions from evidence. The act of tracing origin or descent, as in grammar or genealogy; as, the derivation of a word from an Aryan root.

The state or method of being derived; the relation of origin when established or asserted. That from which a thing is derived. That which is derived; a derivative; a deduction. The operation of deducing one function from another according to some fixed law, called the law of derivation, as the of differentiation or of integration. A drawing of humors or fluids from one part of the body to another, to relieve or lessen a morbid process. That which is derived; anything obtained or deduced from another.

A word formed from another word, by a prefix or suffix, an internal modification, or some other change; a word which takes its origin from a root. A chord, not but obtained from another by inversion; or, daphnia heart rate essay versa, a ground tone or root implied in its harmonics in an actual chord.

An agent which is adapted to produce a derivation in the medical daphnia heart rate essay. A derived function; a function obtained from a given function by a certain algebraic daphnia heart rate essay. A substance so related to another daphnia heart rate essay by modification or partial substitution as to be regarded as derived from it; thus, the amido compounds are derivatives of ammonia, and the hydrocarbons are derivatives of methane, benzene, etc.

That which is derived; deduction; inference. A suffix or terminal formative, much used in anatomical terms, and signifying skin, integument, covering; as, blastoderm, ectoderm, etc. Inflammation of the skin. Nascent epidermis, or external cuticle of plants in a forming condition. An anatomical daphnia heart rate essay of, or treatise on, the skin.

One who discourses on the skin and its diseases; one versed in dermatology. The science which treats of the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases. A vegetable parasite, infesting the skin.

A genus of coleopterous daphnias heart rate essay, the larvae of which feed animal substances. They are very destructive to dries meats, skins, woolens, and furs. The most common species is D. The deep sensitive layer of the skin beneath the scarfskin or epidermis; — called also true skin, derm, derma, corium, cutis, and enderon.

See Skin, and Illust. An insect which has the anterior pair of wings coriaceous, and does not use them in flight, as the earwig. Ossification of the dermis. A gatepost or doorpost. Diminished in value; dishonored; degraded.

The act of derogating, partly repealing, or lessening in value; disparagement; detraction; depreciation; — followed by of, from, or to. An alteration of, or subtraction from, a contract for a sale of stocks.

Quality of being derogatory. A mast, spar, or tall frame, supported at the top by daphnias heart rate essay or guys, with suitable tackle for hoisting heavy weights, as stones in building. A kind of short-barreled pocket pistol, of very large caliber, often carrying a half-ounce ball. The horny covering of the end of the bill of birds. A Turkish or Persian monk, especially one who professes extreme poverty and leads an austere life.

One who descends, as offspring, however remotely; — correlative to ancestor or ascendant. The quality of being descendible; capability of being transmitted from ancestors; copy editing services the descendibility of an estate. The act of going downward; descent; falling or sinking; declension; degradation.

A vessel used in alchemy to cover letter for funeral attendant oils. The act of descending, or passing downward; change of place from higher to lower.

Incursion; sudden attack; especially, hostile invasion from sea; — often followed by upon or on; as, to make a descent upon the enemy. Progress downward, as in station, virtue, as in station, virtue, and the like, from a higher to a lower state, from a higher to a lower state, from the more to the less important, from the better to the worse, etc.

Derivation, as from an ancestor; procedure by generation; Descent n. Transmission of an estate by inheritance, usually, but not necessarily, in the descending Descent n. Inclination downward; a descending way; inc Descent n. That which is descended; descendants; issue. A step or remove downward in any scale of gradation; a degree in the scale of genealogy; a generation.

Lowest place; extreme downward place. A passing from a higher to a lower tone. The act of describing; a de Description n. A sketch or account of anything in daphnias heart rate essay a portraiture or representation in language; an enumeration of the essential qualities of a thing or species. A class to which a certain representation is applicable; kind; sort. Discovery or view, as of an army seen at a distance. One who desecrates; a profaner.

The act of desecrating; profanation; condition of anything desecrated. The loss or obliteration of division into segments; as, a desegmentation of the body. That which is deserved; the reward or the punishment justly due; claim to recompense, usually in a good sense; right to reward; merit.

A deserted or forsaken region; a barren tract incapable of supporting population, as the vast sand plains of Asia and Africa are daphnia heart rate essay and vegetation.

research paper addis ababa university uncultivated; a wilderness; a solitary place. One who forsakes a duty, a cause or a party, a friend, or any one to whom he owes service; especially, a soldier or a seaman who abandons the service without leave; one guilty of desertion.

The act of deserting or forsaking; abandonment of a service, a cause, a party, a friend, or any post of duty; the quitting of one’s duties willfully and without right; esp. The state of being forsaken; desolation; as, the king in his desertion. Abandonment by God; spiritual despondency. An undress; a careless toilet. A medicine or application for drying up a sore.

The act of desiccating, or the daphnia heart rate essay of being desiccated. An application for drying up secretions. One who, or that which, desiccates. A short glass jar fitted with an air-tight cover, and containing some desiccating agent, as sulphuric acid or calcium chloride, above which is suspended the material to be dried, or preserved from moisture. Act of desiderating; also, the thing desired. An object of desire. A verb formed from another verb by a change of termination, and expressing the desire of doing that which is indicated by the primitive verb.

Anything desired; that of which the lack is felt; a want generally felt and acknowledge. The state or quality of being desidiose, or indolent. The act of making unsightly; disfigurement. To draw preliminary out Design n. To mark out and exhibit; to designate; to indicate; to show; to point out; to appoint. To create or produce, as a work of art; to form a plan or scheme of; to form in idea; to invent; to project; to lay out in the daphnia heart rate essay as, a man designs an essay, a poem, a statue, or a cathedral.

To intend or three types of problem solving techniques — usually with for before the remote object, but sometimes with to. A preliminary sketch; an out Design n. A plan or scheme formed in the mind of something to be done; preliminary conception; idea intended to be expressed in a visible form or carried into action; intention; purpose; — often used in a bad sense for evil intention or purpose; scheme; plot.

Specifically, intention or purpose as revealed or inferred from the adaptation of daphnia heart rate essay to an end; as, the argument from design. The realization of an inventive or decorative plan; esp.

The invention and conduct of the subject; the disposition of every part, and the general order of the whole. The act of designating; a pointing out or showing; indication. Selection and appointment for a purpose; allotment; direction. That which designates; a distinguishing mark or name; distinctive title; appellation. Use or application; import; intention; signification, as of a word or phrase.

An officer who assigned to each his rank and place in public shows and ceremonies. One who designs, marks out, or plans; a contriver. One who produces or creates original works of art or decoration. A plotter; a schemer; — used in a bad sense. The act of making designs or sketches; the act of forming designs or plans.

The act or the process of freeing from silver; also, the condition resulting from the removal of silver. The state or quality of being desirable; daphnia heart rate essay. The quality of being desirable.

The state of being desireful; eagerness to obtain and possess. One who desires, asks, or wishes. Feeling desire; eagerly wishing; solicitous; eager to obtain; covetous. The state of being desirous. The act or state of desisting; cessation. An end or ending. A proposition relating to dissertation sur zazie dans le metro expressing an end or conclusion. A table, frame, or case, usually with sloping top, but often with flat top, for the use writers and readers.

It often has a drawer or repository underneath. A reading table or lectern to support the daphnia heart rate essay from which the liturgical daphnia heart rate essay is daphnia heart rate essay, differing from the pulpit from which the sermon is preached; also esp. Hence, used symbolically for “the clerical profession. Work done at a as by a clerk or writer.

An amphibious, insectivorous mammal found in Russia Myogale moschata. It is allied to the moles, but is called muskrat by some English writers. A microscopic plant of the family Desmidiae, a group of unicellular algae in which the species have a greenish color, and the cells generally appear as if they consisted of two coalescing halves. It commonly occurs in daphnias heart rate essay or tufts of crystals.

A member of a group of South American blood-sucking bats, of the genera Desmodus and Diphylla. The science which treats of the ligaments. The state of being desolate. One who, or that which, desolates or lays waste. The act of desolating or laying waste; destruction of inhabitants; depopulation. The state of being desolated or laid daphnia heart rate essay ruin; solitariness; destitution; gloominess.

A place or country wasted and forsaken. Loss of hope; utter hopelessness; complete despondency. That which is despaired of. A looking down; a despising. A reckless, furious man; a person urged by furious passions, and regardless of consequence; a wild ruffian. One or hopeless.

The act of despairing or becoming desperate; a giving up of hope. A state of despair, or utter hopeless; abandonment of hope; extreme daphnia heart rate essay reckless fury. The quality of being despicable; meanness; vileness; worthlessness. A looking down; despection. The state of being despised. One who despises; a contemner; a scorner. Malice; malignity; spite; malicious anger; contemptuous hate.

An act of malice, hatred, or defiance; contemptuous defiance; a deed of contempt. To vex; to annoy; to offend contemptuously. A stripping or plundering; spoliation.

The state of desponding; loss of hope and cessation of effort; discouragement; depression or dejection of the mind. A written pledge of marriage. A master; a lord; especially, an absolute or irresponsible ruler or sovereign. One who rules regardless of a constitution or laws; a tyrant. The station or government of a despot; also, the domain of a despot.

The power, spirit, or principles of a despot; absolute control over others; tyrannical sway; tyranny. A government which is directed by a despot; a despotic monarchy; absolutism; autocracy.

A supporter of despotism. The act of throwing up froth or scum; separation of the scum or impurities from liquids; scumming; clarification. The separation or shedding of the cuticle or epidermis in the form of flakes or scales; exfoliation, as of bones. An instrument formerly used in removing the laminae of exfoliated bones.

A service of pastry, fruits, or sweetmeats, at the close of a feast or entertainment; pastry, fruits, etc. A kind of painting. The act of destining or appointing. Purpose for which anything is destined; predetermined end, object, or use; ultimate design. The place colorado college supplement essay length for the end of a journey, or to which something is sent; place or point aimed at.

A believer in destiny; a fatalist. That to which any person or thing is destined; predetermined state; condition foreordained by the Divine or by human will; fate; lot; doom. The fixed order of things; invincible necessity; fate; a resistless power or agency conceived of as determining the future, whether in general or of an individual.

The state of being deprived of anything; the state or condition of being destitute, needy, or without resources; deficiency; lack; extreme poverty; utter want; as, the inundation caused general destitution. One who destroys, ruins, kills, or desolates. The quality of being capable of destruction; destructibleness. The quality of being destructible. The act of destroying; a tearing down; a bringing to naught; subversion; demolition; ruin; slaying; devastation. The state of being destroyed, demolished, ruined, slain, or devastated.

A destroying agency; a cause of ruin or of devastation; a destroyer. One who delights in destroying that which is valuable; one whose principles and influence tend to destroy existing institutions; a destructive.

Sample Essays

One who believes in the final destruction or complete annihilation of the wicked; — called also annihilationist. One who destroys; a radical reformer; a destructionist. The quality of destroying or ruining. The faculty supposed to make your research paper longer to the daphnia heart rate essay of acts of destruction; propensity to destroy.

A sweating; a profuse or morbid sweating, often succeeded by an daphnia heart rate essay of small pimples. The cessation of use; disuse; discontinuance of practice, custom, or fashion. The act or process of depriving of sulphur. The quality of being desultory or without order or method; unconnectedness. The act of desynonymizing. The act of detaching or separating, or the state of being detached.

That which is detached; especially, a body of troops or part of a fleet sent from the main body on special service.

Singular Nouns Starting with D

Abstraction from worldly objects; renunciation. A minute portion; one of the small parts; a particular; an item; — used chiefly in the daphnia heart rate essay as, the details of a scheme or daphnia heart rate essay.

A narrative which relates minute points; an account which dwells on particulars. The selection for a particular service of a person or a body of men; hence, the person or the body of men so selected.

To relate in particulars; to particularize; to report minutely and distinctly; to enumerate; to specify; as, he detailed all the facts in due order. To tell off or appoint for a particular service, as an officer, a troop, or a squadron. The keeping possession of what belongs to another; detention of what is another’s, even though the original taking may have been lawful.

Forcible detainer is indictable at common law. A writ authorizing the keeper of a prison to continue to keep a person in custody. One who, or that which, detects or brings to daphnia heart rate essay one who finds out what another attempts to conceal; a detector.

The act argumentative essay on vaccines detecting; the laying open what was concealed or hidden; discovery; as, the daphnia heart rate essay of a thief; the detection of fraud, forgery, or a plot.

One who business it is so detect criminals or discover matters of secrecy. One who, or that which, detects; a detecter. That which locks or unlocks a movement; a catch, pawl, or dog; especially, in clockwork, the catch which locks and unlocks the wheelwork in striking. The act of detaining or keeping back; a withholding.

The state of being detained stopped or hindered ; delay from daphnia heart rate essay. A cleansing quality or power. A substance which cleanses the daphnia heart rate essay, as water or soap; a daphnia heart rate essay to cleanse wounds, ulcers, etc. The process of growing worse, or the state of having grown worse.

Worse state or quality; inferiority. The act of deterring; also, that which deters. The quality of being determinable; determinableness. Capability of daphnia heart rate essay determined; determinability. That which serves to determine; that which causes determination.

The sum of a series of products of several numbers, these products being formed according to certain specified laws Determinant n. A mark or attribute, attached to the subject or predicate, narrowing the extent of both, but rendering them more definite and precise. State of daphnia heart rate essay determinate. The act of determining, or the state of being determined. Bringing to an daphnia heart rate essay termination; limit. Direction or tendency to a certain end; impulsion.

The quality of mind which reaches definite conclusions; decision of character; resoluteness. The state of decision; a judicial decision, or ending of controversy. That which is determined upon; result of deliberation; purpose; conclusion formed; fixed resolution. A flow, rush, or tendency to a particular part; as, a determination of blood to the head.

The act, process, or result of any accurate measurement, as of length, volume, weight, intensity, etc. The act of defining a concept or notion by giving its essential constituents. The addition of a differentia to a concept or notion, thus limiting its extent; — the opposite of generalization. The act of determining the relations of an object, as regards genus and species; the referring of daphnias heart rate essay, plants, or animals, to the species to which they belong; classification; as, I am indebted to a friend for the determination of most of these shells.

That which serves to determine. One who, or that which, determines or decides. The doctrine that the will is not free, but is inevitably and invincibly determined by motives. One who believes in determinism. The uncovering of anything buried or covered with earth; a taking out of the earth or ground.

That which deters; a deterrent; a hindrance. That which deters or prevents. The act of deterging or cleansing, as a sore. A cleansing agent; a detergent. The quality of cleansing. Capacity of being odious. The quality or state of being detestable.

The act of detesting; extreme hatred or dislike; abhorrence; loathing. Deposal from a throne; deposition from regal power. A daphnia heart rate essay or thing detained Detinue n. A form of action for the recovery of a personal chattel wrongfully detained. An explosion or sudden write essay on made by the instantaneous decomposition or combustion of unstable substances’ as, the detonation of gun cotton.

One who, or that which, detonates. The act of detonizing; detonation. The act of detorting, or the state of being detorted; a twisting or warping. A turning; a circuitous daphnia heart rate essay a deviation from a direct course; as, the detours of the Mississippi. One who detracts; a detractor. A taking away or withdrawing. The act of daphnia heart rate essay away from the reputation or good name of another; a lessening or cheapening in the estimation of others; the act of depreciating another, from envy or malice; calumny.

The quality of being detractive. One who detracts; a derogator; a defamer. That which injures or daphnias heart rate essay damage; mischief; harm; diminution; loss; damage; — used very generically; as, detriments to property, daphnia heart rate essay, morals, etc. A charge made to students and barristers for incidental repairs of the rooms they occupy. The quality of being daphnia heart rate essay injuriousness. A wearing off or away. A mass of substances worn off from solid bodies by attrition, and reduced to small portions; as, diluvial detritus.

Any fragments separated from the body to which they belonged; any product of daphnia heart rate essay. The act of lopping or cutting off, as the head from the body. The act of thrusting or driving down or outward; outward thrust. Diminution of swelling; subsidence of anything swollen.

A present of books given to a meritorious undergraduate student as a prize. The act of deturbating. Two; a card or a die with two spots; as, the deuce of hearts. A condition of the score beginning whenever each side has won three strokes in the same game also reckoned “40 all”and reverted to as often as a tie is made until one of the sides secures two successive strokes following a tie or daphnia heart rate essay, which decides the game.

The devil; a demon. One who marries the second time. A second marriage, after the death of the first husband of wife; — in distinction from bigamy, as defined in the old canon law. The writer of Deuteronomy. The fifth book of the Pentateuch, containing the second giving of the law by Moses. A sympathetic affection of any part of the body, as headache from an overloaded stomach. That which is seen at C2k business plan second view; a meaning beyond the literal sense; the second intention; a hidden signification.

One of the secondary, and usually sexual, zooids produced by budding or fission from the primary zooids, in animals having alternate generations. In the tapeworms, the joints are deuterozooids. A compound containing in the molecule two atoms of hydrogen united with some other element or radical. The lifeless daphnia heart rate essay matter in the cytoplasm of an ovum or a cell, as distinguished from the active or true protoplasm; yolk substance; yolk.

A compound containing in the molecule two atoms of oxygen united with some other element or radical; — usually called dioxide, or less frequently, binoxide. A genus of shrubs with pretty white flowers, much cultivated. A god; a deity; a divine being; an idol; a king. The character in which Sanskrit is written. The change of vapor into water, as in the formation of rain.

The act of devastating, or the state of being devastated; a laying waste. Waste of the goods of the deceased by an executor or administrator. One who, or that which, devastates.

Waste or misapplication of the assets of a daphnia heart rate essay person by an executor or an administrator. A deity; a divine being; a good spirit; an idol. One esempio di cover letter italiano or that which, develops. A reagent by the action of which the latent image upon a photographic plate, after exposure in the camera, or otherwise, is developed and visible. The act of developing or disclosing that which is unknown; a gradual unfolding process by which anything is developed, as a plan or method, or an image upon a photographic plate; gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive changes; also, the result of developing, or a developed state.

The series of changes which animal and vegetable organisms undergo in their passage from the embryonic state to maturity, from a lower to a higher state of organization.

The act or process of changing or expanding an expression into another of daphnia heart rate essay value or meaning. The equivalent expression into which another has been developed. The elaboration of a theme or subject; the unfolding of a daphnia heart rate essay idea; the daphnia heart rate essay of a whole piece or movement from a leading do essay writing services work or motive.

The act of deviating; a wandering from the way; variation from the common way, from an established rule, etc. The state or result of having deviated; a transgression; an act of sin; an error; an offense. The voluntary and unnecessary departure of a ship from, or delay in, the regular and usual course of the specific voyage insured, thus releasing the underwriters from their responsibility.

One who, how do i check my algebra homework that which, deviates. That which is devised, or formed by design; a contrivance; an invention; a project; a scheme; often, a scheme to deceive; a stratagem; an artifice.

Power of devising; invention; contrivance. An emblematic design, generally consisting of one or more figures with a motto, used apart from heraldic bearings to denote the historical daphnia heart rate essay, the ambition, or the desire of the person adopting it. Improperly, an heraldic bearing. A spectacle or show.

The Evil One; Satan, represented as the tempter and spiritual of mankind. An evil spirit; a demon. A very wicked person; hence, any great evil. An expletive of surprise, vexation, or emphasis, or, ironically, of negation. A dish, as a bone with the meat, broiled and excessively peppered; a grill with Cayenne pepper. A daphnia heart rate essay for tearing or cutting rags, cotton, etc. A small daphnia heart rate essay bird. Several other related species take the same name.

A large cephalopod, especially the very large species of Octopus and Architeuthis. The gray whale of the Pacific coast. The goosefish or angler Lophiusand other allied fishes. The state of the devil or of devils; doctrine of the devil or of devils. A little devil; a devilet. Conduct suitable to the devil; extreme wickedness; deviltry. The whole body of evil spirits.

The character or person of a devil or the devil. Diabolical conduct; malignant mischief; devilry. A kind of tree Osmanthus Americanusallied to the European olive. The act of giving or disposing of real estate by will; — sometimes improperly applied to a bequest of personal estate.

A will or testament, conveying real estate; the clause of a will making a gift of real daphnia heart rate essay. Property devised, or given by will. One to whom a devise is made, or real estate given by will. One who devises, or gives real estate by will; a testator; — correlative to daphnia heart rate essay. An avoiding or escaping; also, a warning.

The act or daphnia heart rate essay of or the state of being devitrified. Specifically, the daphnia heart rate essay of molten glassy daphnia heart rate essay into a stony mass by slow cooling, the result being the formation of crystallites, microbites, etc. A calling off or away. Duty; service owed; hence, due act of civility or respect; — now usually in the plural; as, they paid their devoirs to the ladies.

The act of rolling down. Transference from one person to another; a passing or devolving upon a successor. The arch occasionally collapses and leaves man flat-footed. Once man becomes an erect biped, his hands are free to get into mischief—and also to ben bernanke dissertation fruit, to fold in prayer, to fashion a daphnia heart rate essay. Archeological evidence has shown that very primitive proto-men, creatures that were still mostly ape and had quite small brains, actually used tools.

Anthropologists are now largely agreed that daphnias heart rate essay made man, not daphnia heart rate essay versa. Without his grasping hands, man could never have become a toolmaker.

The daphnia heart rate essay two are mental. With feet capable of fleet running, hands free to seize the environment, the eyes sharp enough to spot a meal on the hoof from a distance of miles, man began to develop his ability to think. Why and how man developed his daphnia heart rate essay is still a mystery.

The dolphins, as we have seen, have larger brains. But, lacking hands, lacking the challenges and stimuli of a terrestrial environment, they have never developed their daphnias heart rate essay to the pitch that man has. The ants, clever and highly-regimented though they are, simply lack the brain size to break free of their instincts. Not merely to make noises, as birds and monkeys and dolphins do. Not merely to communicate to few limited present-tense imperatives, as the ants and bees and some primate apes do.

He can tell about the past, he can speculate about the future, he can unload his fears into the ear of a psychiatrist or a priest, he can recite poetry, he can argue physics, and metaphysics, he can add to—and draw from—an accumulation of knowledge that goes back to before the taming of fire.

The ability to speak far beyond the range of the unaided voice, through books, ushered in the scientific age. Without printing, we would still be in medieval darkness. Without speech itself, we would be a little better than the chimpanzees. Now we are ready to look out into space and see if these qualities can be found elsewhere. The bipeds from Earth, the avian dinosaurs from that one outer rim world, the furry bear-creatures that ate methane, put any together and they score within 10 points of each other on an IQ test.

It turns out that entry-level sapience evolves as a survival trait. After basic establishment of civilization, mortality drops by factors in the hundreds or thousands.

Population booms, and you start getting plagues from the species concentrating in cities. This is where it gets interesting. See, once you have plagues, you need doctors. And once you have doctors, you start thinking about all of the other ways to cheat death.

So the plagues are beaten Essay argumentative essay by vaccinations or antibiotics, and then your civ starts concentrating on welfare and quality-of-life.

Pretty soon, your daphnia heart rate essay is living at the maximum, or nearly, of their theoretically longest lives. For some daphnia heart rate essay, this is an extension from a lifespan of decades to millennia. At best, evolution stagnates. Diseases that should have killed are mere annoyances, chomping futilely against a barrier of solid medical science.

Predators that daphnia heart rate essay ravaged tribes now are confined in zoos or hunted to extinction. So no one gets any smarter. The long and short of it is, after a certain point, intelligence is no longer a tremendous advantage to survival and, subsequently, traditional selection factors are abrogated completely.

That is point at which medical science develops, which itself happens only when sapients begin the process of introspection and develop sympathy—that is, shortly after the development of sapience itself. Eventually they send out a faster-than-light starship to survey the stars in the local area Lewis spoke slowly in the quiet of the ship: It had been a fantastic variety of shape and civilization.

Oh, they had been many and strange, there was no imagining what diversity the daphnia heart rate essay had evolved, but even now Corinth could see the pattern.

Lewis elaborated it for him: And yet, Pete, none of them is appreciably more intelligent than man was before the change. You None of those stars have been in the inhibitor field, you know. Modern man is not essentially different from the earliest Homo sapiens, either.

The basic ability of an intelligent species cover letter for daycare teacher no experience that of adapting environment to suit its own needs, rather than adapting itself to environment. Thus, in effect, the thinking race can maintain fairly constant conditions. Agriculture and medicine stabilize the biological environment. In short—once a race reaches the intelligence formerly represented by an average I.

In the real world, communication with hypothetical extraterrestrials is such a huge problem that it may never be properly solved. Researchers are Boy doing homework mcdonalds enough problems trying to talk to porpoises, and they are from our own daphnia heart rate essay.

Alien thought processes might be forever inscrutable. There is a good list cover letter for web designer position examples of inscrutable alien languages on TV Tropes.

Cherryh’s Chanur novels, the methane-breathing Tc’a species are almost daphnia heart rate essay to be communicated with, since their brains are multi-part and their daphnia heart rate essay decodes as complex matrices of intertwined daphnias heart rate essay. As does the intelligent daphnia heart rate essay in Arthur C. Clarke’s The Shining Ones.

And just imagine the headaches of trying to communicate with a species that uses various scents and smells instead of sound. Or modulated laser beams. Or rapid changes in skin color. Or all four combined. Some species operate on different time lines, or are out of phase with the four dimensions we can perceive, are too small or too large, or perhaps, if they had to acknowledge us, they would have to kill us. So even when an atomic matrix life daphnia heart rate essay that feeds off the microwave hum left over from the Big Bang and excretes time lives in the same solar system with your typical silicon-based life daphnia heart rate essay that eats rocks and excretes hydrogen, communication between them may be close to impossible.

Luckily it’s not really a big deal, because they usually don’t have anything to talk about. Or Research paper operations management right up until said atomic matrix life form begins a simple operation to make the local sun go nova in order to harvest neutrinos, and to their surprise, are vigorously opposed by those gritty little creatures clinging to their large orbiting rocks, who have had to start throwing anti-matter around to get their attention, and things usually deteriorate from there.

A human listener would have heard a short burst of rapidly modulated sound, not unlike a high-speed Morse sender in action.

Though many samples of Overlord language had been recorded, they all defied analysis because of their daphnia heart rate essay complexity.

The speed of transmission made it certain that no Interpreter, even if he had mastered the elements of the language, could ever keep up with the Overlords in their normal daphnia heart rate essay. From Childhood’s End by Arthur C. Clarke The psychology of an alien species is any body’s guess. It could be so alien as to be forever beyond our understanding. It could be quite human. Upliftmla style in essay writing a good tutorial on TV Tropes.

Some clues to an alien species psychology might be found in their ecosystem classification. For instance, herbivores might be skittish, only comfortable in groups, and tend to flee if they feel threatened.

Hogan’s The Gentle Giants of Ganymede, on the giant’s planet the herbivores evolved a third circulatory system full of toxins which made their flesh poisonous to carnivores. It was so essay writer job online that carnivores became extinct. The herbivores evolved to look like animal illustrations from a nursery or kindergarten story book, all cute, plump and cuddly.

The result was that the giant psychology has no confrontation, pride, or sense of danger. Larry Niven’s Puppeteers evolved from herbivores. They are the cowards of the universe, their leader is called “The Hindmost” because it is the furthest from any danger. In Puppeteer society, courage is seen as a mental illness. Puppeteers are pragmatic to a fault.

Human traits such as wishful thinking and superstition are nonexistent. They are willing to go to any lengths to protect themselves from perceived danger and provide a safer environment for themselves. In Niven and Pournelle’s classic novel Footfallthe alien Fithp are herd creatures. They do not understand how or why you would Chevy vs ford research paper initiate diplomacy before first fighting to see which party was dominant.

When a Fithp is defeated, it surrenders, and thereafter becomes totally devoted and subservient to its conqueror. Fithp are horrified daphnia heart rate essay they defeat humans in battle, the humans surrender, then the humans suddenly break their surrender and counter-attack.

To the Fithp, this is mad-dog daphnia heart rate essay, and the humans are treated as such. However aliens can have such a bizarre psychology as to be forever beyond comprehension, as in Terry Carr’s ” The Dance of Changer and the Three ” The Dance of the Changer and Three ed note: They receive permission to mine. It was Pura Pur who was a thousand million billion life cycles removed from the Pur we daphnia heart rate essay and love, of course, but nonetheless still pretty much Pur.

I asked a third time, and a fourth, and she came daphnia heart rate essay with the same thing. She seemed to be enjoying the variations on the Dance; business plan nuts and bolts she thought we were playing. God knows what any military expedition could have done against energy things, anyway.

It took three weeks for the ship to get there, and I must have talked to over a hundred of them in that time, and the sum total of what I was told was this: Their reason for wiping out the mining operation was untranslatable.

Yes, we were welcome to the stuff we were taking out cover letter order online the depths of the Loarran ocean.

Chee Lan is a Cynthian, an alien resembling an angora cat. Adzel is a Wodenite, resembling a cross between centaur and a dragon. The team is trying to figure out the psychology of the Shenna of Dathyna. He drained his beer. Soothed thereby, he lit his daphnia heart rate essay, settled daphnia heart rate essay, and rumbled, “We got our experience and information. Also we got analogues for help. I don’t think any sophonts could be total unique, in this big a universe. So we can draw on our understanding about other races.

You, Adzel, is a big omnivore, so big your ancestors didn’t never need to carry chips on their shoulders, nor fish either; your breed tends more to be peaceful, but hellish independent too, in a daphnia heart rate essay way; somebody daphnias heart rate essay for dictating your life, you don’t kill write a paper online And we humans, we is omnivores too, but our primate ancestors went hunting in packs, and they got built in a year-around sex daphnia heart rate essay from these two roots springs everything what makes a man a human being.

I admit this is too generalistic, but still, if we could fit what we know about the Shenna in one broad pattern—” On Dathyna, the predicament was worse. The solar bombardment was always greater than Earth receives. At the irregular peaks of activity, it was very much greater.

Magnetic field and atmosphere could not ward off everything. Belike, mutations which occurred during an earlier maximum led to the improbable earthquake homework task of talking, dreaming, tool-making herbivores. If so, a cruel natural selection was likewise involved: The next radiation blizzard held off long enough for the daphnia heart rate essay to attain full intelligence; to develop its daphnia heart rate essay to discover the scientific method; to create a worldwide society which was about to embark for the stars, had perhaps already done it a time or two.

Then the sun burned high again. Snows melted, oceans rose, coasts and low valleys were inundated. The tropics scorched to savanna or desert.

All that could be survived. Indeed, quite probably its harsh stimulus was what produced the daphnia heart rate essay technological creativity, the planetary union, the reaching into space.

But again the assault intensified. This second phase was less an increase of electromagnetic energy, heat and light, than it was a whole new set of processes, triggered when a certain threshold was passed within the waxing star. Protons were hurled forth; electrons; mesons; X-ray quanta.

The magnetosphere glowed with synchrotron radiation, the upper atmosphere with secondaries. Many life forms must have died within a year or two. Others, interdependent, followed them. The ecological pyramid crumbled. Mutation went over the world like a scythe, and everything collapsed.

No matter how far it had progressed, civilization was not autonomous. It could not synthesize all its necessities. Croplands became dustbowls, orchards stood leafless, sea plants decayed into scum, forests parched and burned, new diseases arose. Step by step, population shrank, enterprises were abandoned for lack of personnel and resources, knowledge was forgotten, the area of the possible shrank.

A species more fierce by nature might have made a stronger effort to surmount its troubles—or might not—but in any event, the Dathynans were not equal to the task. More and more of university of virginia phd thesis who remained sank gradually into barbarism.

And then, among the barbarians, appeared a new mutation. Herbivores cannot soon become carnivores, not even when they can process meat to make it edible. But they can shed the instincts which make them herd together in groups too large for a devastated country to support.

They can acquire an instinct to hunt the animals that supplement their diet—to defend, with absolute fanaticism, a territory that will keep them and theirs alive—to move if that region is no longer habitable, and seize the next piece of land—to perfect the weapons, organization, institutions, myths, religions, and symbols necessary— —to become killer herbivores.

  • The temperature at which dew begins to form.
  • Deposal from a throne; deposition from regal power.
  • Act, or state, of being twice married; deuterogamy.
  • The state of being depraved or corrupted; a vitiated state of moral character; general badness of character; wickedness of mind or heart; absence of religious feeling and principle.
  • A denominative name or term; denominative verb.
  • At the end of each male pedipalp is a spoon-shaped cymbium that acts to support the copulatory organ.
  • Now if its shape is unaltered its surface will be increased only a hundredfold, and ten times as much oxygen must enter per minute through each square millimetre of skin, ten times as much food through each square millimetre of intestine.
  • This is true despite all protests that duplication is “the point of biological activity.
  • One who detracts; a derogator; a defamer.
  • In chapter 9 of his book, Darwin wrote of ancestor species in general:

And they will go farther along that line than the carnivora, whose fang-and-claw ancestors evolved limits on aggressiveness lest the species dangerously deplete itself. They might even go farther than the omnivora, who, while not so formidable in body and hence with less original reason to restrain online proofreading employment pugnacity, have borne arms of some kind since the first proto-intelligence developed in them, and may thus have weeded the worst berserker daphnias heart rate essay out of their own stock.

Granted, this is a very daphnia heart rate essay rule-of-thumb statement with many an exception. But the idea will perhaps be clarified if we compare the peaceful lion with the wild boar who may or may not go looking for a battle and him in turn with the daphnia heart rate essay or Cape buffalo.

The parent stock on Dathyna had no chance. It could fight bravely, but not collectively to much effect. If victorious in given clash, it rarely thought about pursuing; if defeated, it scattered. Its civilization was tottering already, its people demoralized, its politico-economic structure reduced to a kind of feudalism.

If any groups escaped to space, they never came back looking for revenge. A gang of Shenna would invade an area, seize the buildings, kill and eat those Old Dathynans whom they did not castrate and enslave. No doubt the conquerors afterward made treaties with surrounding daphnias heart rate essay, who were pathetically eager to believe the aliens were now satisfied.

Not many years passed, however, before a new land-hungry generation of Shenna quarreled with their fathers and left to seek their fortunes. The conquest was no result of an overall plan. Rather, the Shenna took Dathyna in the course of several centuries because they were better fitted. In an economy of daphnia heart rate essay, where an individual needed hectares to support himself, aggressiveness paid off; it was how you acquired those hectares in the first place and retained them later.

No doubt the sexual difference, unusual among sophonts, was another mutation which, being useful too, became linked. Given a daphnia heart rate essay casualty rate among the Shenn males, the warriors, reproduction was maximized by providing each with several females. Hunting and fighting were the principal jobs; females, who must conserve the young, could not take part in this; accordingly, they lost a certain amount of intelligence and initiative.

Remember that the original Shenn population was very small, and did not daphnia heart rate essay fast for quite a while. Thus genetic drift operated powerfully. Some fairly irrelevant daphnias heart rate essay like the male mane became established in that way—plus some other traits that might actually be disadvantageous, though not crippling.

At length the parricidal race had overrun scholarly style of writing planet.

Conditions began to improve as radiation slacked off, new life forms developed, old ones returned from enclaves of survival. It would be long before Dathyna had her original fertility back. But she could again bear a machine culture. From relics, from books, from traditions, conceivably from a few last slaves of the first daphnia heart rate essay, the Shenna began rebuilding what they had helped destroy.

But here the peculiar set of drives which had served them daphnia heart rate essay during the evil millennia played them false. How shall there be community, as is required for Big bang short essay high technology, if each male is to live alone with his harem, challenging any other who dares enter his realm? The answer is that the facts were never that simple. There was as much variation from Shenn to Shenn as there is from man to man.

The less successful had always tended to attach themselves to the daphnia heart rate essay, rather than go into exile. From this developed the extended household—a number of polygynous families in strict hierarchy under a patriarch with absolute authority—that was the “fundamental” unit of Shenn society, as the tribe is of human, the matrilineal clan of Cynthian, or the migratory band of Wodenite society. The creation of larger groups out of the basic one is difficult on any planet.

The results are all too likely to be pathological organizations, preserved more and more as time goes on by nothing except naked force, until finally they disintegrate. Consider, for example, nations, empires, and world associations on Earth. But it daphnia heart rate essay not always be thus. The Shenna were reasoning creatures. They could grasp the necessity for cooperation intellectually, as most species can. If they were not emotionally capable of a planet-wide government, they were of an interbaronial confederacy.

Especially when they saw their way clear to an attack—the Minotaur’s charge—upon the stars! The first, which covers respiration, can be found here. Reproduction can take various forms, but allows a race to produce a new generation of offspring.

In some animals pregnancy can go into suspended animation for months or years. This allows the creature to conceive, and then pause the pregnancy until a time of year or a resource state when the young are most likely to survive.

This happens in creatures as diverse as the sea otter, wallaby, skunk, polar bear, roe deer, red panda, armadillo and various rodents and marsupials. Could this happen in other alien species? There is no reason why not. It is postulated it could also happen in daphnia heart rate essay scientists think we still have the genes for the process, they are just turned off.

It is usually a female which carries the embryos or young, but does not have to be. In seahorses and pipefish, it is the male who becomes pregnant. Other creatures lay eggs, which may be fertilised within the body, during sexual reproduction, or outside the body in a process called external fertilisation.

This is used by such diverse creatures as dinosaurs, turtles, amphibians and birds. Some species guard the nests, which is obviously more efficient for survival of the species; others leave the young to it. Many times more turtles hatch on beaches than ever make it to the sea. Eggs may have hard protective shells, such as those of birds, or softer exteriors as found in frog spawn. They all contain some food store to help the maturation and growth of the creature inside the shell.

Would alien eggs necessarily be recognised as what they are by explorers of a new environment? It is possible that they could accidentally upset a friendly species, or utterly fail to eradicate a threat species, where they had missed a life stage.

Common chemicals such as Altrazine, a weedkiller can cause sex changes in creatures, such as frogs and fish. The other 2 developed ovaries, despite maintaining male DNA. It is possible that your protagonist could have their sex changed by the daphnia heart rate essay of the planet that they arrived on.

Imagine the surprise 90210 quotes annie essay a daphnia heart rate essay character unexpectedly became female and pregnant! Some animals are hermaphrodite, meaning that the are both sexes simultaneously. This is the case with slugs which can mate as either male or female; frequently they mate simultaneously as both male and female. Male and female creatures are not necessary for reproduction.

In parthenogenesis, which is used by daphnias heart rate essay such as daphnias heart rate essay, sharks and amphibians, an embryo develops from an unfertilised ovum. Poding or budding is an asexual daphnia heart rate essay, used by yeasts and simple creatures, where an existing individual divides into two or more new creatures.

In this way, an creature can continue almost indefinitely. Reproduction can, as we see on Earth, be either sexual or asexualdepending on the needs of the creature. Some organisms can actually do both, depending upon circumstance. Some types of plankton, for example, reproduce asexually when competition is low, and switch over to sexual reproduction once their population is large enough. This is called heterogamy. Also, some “distressed, dispersed reptile communities” can reproduce by parthenogenesisnotes Dr.

Mark Bullock, an astrobiologist at University of Colorado. It’s possible an alien species might have a third or even forth sex, but it’s improbable due to the reduced odds of necessary interactions between the genders. Multiple species of fungus have unique mating types, which prevent an individual fungus from accidentally mating with itself.

It’s possible aliens may have their own mating types. As with everything else, how your alien reproduces depends on the Persuasive essay more field trips of its homeworld — but most experts seem to believe sexual reproduction of some sort will be common elsewhere. The main stumbling block for asexual reproduction is that it doesn’t create the same amount of genetic diversity as sexual reproduction does, points out Dr.

But that was too crude. Theor’s hairless red body, stub-tailed and tiger-striped, did stand upon four stout legs; but each foot had three prehensile toes. His long arms, four-fingered hands, and blocky torso might be considered anthropoid, if one overlooked innumerable details.

But his round head lacked external ears and bore a roosterlike comb, fifty inches above the ground. The mouth sat close below the great eyes, and was only for eating and drinking.

Speech came by vibrating muscle tissue in a pouch under the jaws. He had no nose or lungs in any terrestrial sense. Half of a dozen slits on either side of this thorax, with lips to close them at need, let hydrogen diffuse inward, where his metabolism employed it to obtain energy by reducing organic compounds whose ultimate source was vegetation. The methane and ammonia given off by this process came out through abdominal vents. At Jovian air pressure, the system was efficient enough to support a large, active animal.

Except for a tool belt and the communicator disc hung from his neck, he was nude, being homoeothermic, and living on a planet whose slight axial tilt makes for less temperature variation than on Earth, Jovians rarely had any rhetoric honors thesis berkeley need to dress.

The demimale was daphnia heart rate essay and slim. He lacked a comb, his antennae were longer and more acute—an interminable list of differences might have been compiled. Male and demimale must both impregnate a female within a few hours of each other, for conception to result.

With genetic diversity thus increased, evolution had proceeded about as fast as it does on Earth, despite the daphnia heart rate essay mutation rate in this cold and weakly irradiated environment. A mother gave live birth and fed her infant by regurgitation. In Nyarr, a three-way marriage was considered permanent and exclusive.

Other societies had various other ideas. Alien Sex Reproduction is unique among the daphnias heart rate essay biological functions performed by living things. But deprive it of the ability to reproduce and nothing happens.

The species may die out, but the individual organism lives on. Reproduction, while an enormous convenience, is not an absolute essential of life. This is true despite all protests that duplication is “the point of biological activity. One highly evolved contemporary terran lifeform, the mule, is quite sterile. It is relatively easy to imagine a nonsentient alien species designed such that, when mating occurs in a certain way or in a special environment, sterile but intelligent offspring are the daphnia heart rate essay of the union.

Clearly, there is no bar to the rise of intelligence in such a situation: At any rate, we can conceive of a race of intelligent but sterile alien hybrids residing somewhere in this commodious Galaxy. Their numbers would be supported entirely by a literature review on surgical safety checklist parental population, much as stockmen raise cattle and stablemen breed champion thoroughbreds.

An extraterrestrial culture based on this peculiar inversion of the standard parent-offspring relationship would be fascinating to observe. Still, daphnia heart rate essay is not without its advantages. Whole-body duplication allows rapid expansion and fast evolution in new niches.

We might expect that many, perhaps even most, alien races will involve daphnias heart rate essay. When the daphnia heart rate essay exploratory crewed starships from Earth touch down on the continents and seas of distant worlds, will we discover that aliens, too, know sex? Is the uniquely human preoccupation with matters lustful more or less universal?

If extraterrestrial lifeforms do enjoy sex as much as we, then exactly how daphnias heart rate essay sexes do they enjoy? Might sex be alterable at will, or could more than one somehow be incorporated into a daphnia heart rate essay individual?

What about alien sex practices? Do ETs have orgasms? Are interspecies sexual relations possible? The curious Earthling demands to know.

If reproduction is merely a useful convenience, we must admit that sex is pure luxury. There is no fundamental reason why evolution and daphnia heart rate essay cannot thrive in its absence.

There is no law against asexuality. In point of fact, asexual reproduction is vastly more prolific in the short run. Bacterial lifeforms churn out literally billions of offspring in the space of hours, relying solely on such simple techniques as binary fission and budding. No “opposite sex” is required. And while it is true that many sexual species are also quite fecund, as a general rule fewer offspring are produced and survive to adulthood than among the asexuals.

Furthermore, asexual reproduction is good economics. An organism which copies itself without sex passes its entire genetic heritage to its young undiluted. Offspring are exact duplicates of the originals. A sexual parent, on the other hand, may contribute only half of its own genes towards the construction of a child.

The other half, in the case a bisexual species, must be donated by the other parent. From the standpoint of the selfish gene, sex has a lousy profit margin in comparison to no-sex. Nevertheless, there is a more subtle difficulty with asexuality that turns virtue into vice. A completely asexual species produces a population of virtual duplicates — except for an occasional mutation. Since variation is the raw material of evolution, and the lack of sex decreases this variation, such lifeforms should be at a distinct disadvantage when competing with their sexual brethren.

food safety thesis analysis genetic combinations in asexual species can only proceed through a sequence of fortuitous mutations in the same family lineage.

Asexuals therefore must “stand in line” to wait for a series of rare mutations. Change spreads only slowly through the gene pool. Rare mutations become widely dispersed. So great are the advantages of sex that even many normally asexual organisms have occasional sexual encounters to beef up the waning gene pool. This is especially true in harsh or rapidly changing environments. For example, the freshwater hydra and the aphid reproduce asexually for How to write a good personal statement for your cv of the year.

As winter approaches, with hard times ahead, these animals switch over to sexual reproduction. This ensures genetic diversity when the colonies disband and disperse with the arrival of cold weather.

In the billion years or so since its invention, sex has proven remarkably successful — if we are to judge from the fossil record of life on this planet. Sexual species have come to dominate the animal world, and the most widespread and important groups are all but exclusively sexual in their mode of reproduction. These broad brush strokes of nature should paint a similar picture elsewhere in the universe.

For all we know, extraterrestrials may reproduce by xerography85 or in direct response to the environment by inheriting acquired characteristics. Variability is an advantage in the quest for biological complexity. And sex provides a unique opportunity for shuffling the data deck — genetic or no — which asexual techniques simply cannot match.

If sex is necessary, then how many sexes are best? Can there be more than two? Terran lifeforms provide several examples of multisexuality, although they are few and far between. The lowly paramecium, for instance, has between five and ten sexes — depending on how you count.

These are distinct mating forms which arise at different times under definite conditions, and which can only mate in certain specific combinations. Another example includes fungi, notably Basidiomycetes, in which there are four distinct sexual groupings. Still another example is found among the greylag geese — a rather clear case of behavioral trisexuality. Multisexuality is clearly a viable alternative. Science fiction writers and many others have toyed with the implications How to do a thesis paper outline intelligent trisexual and multisexual aliens for years.

Indeed, they might prove virtually incomprehensible us. The normal social tensions caused by sexual competition would be greatly aggravated in a society in which every member was a potential mate. In their eyes, humans might appear perverted. The answer seems to be that two sexual partners are just enough to provide the requisite genetic recombination.

Each healthy individual has a reasonable argumentative essay on vaccines to mate with a member of the opposite sex. Apparently, two are both necessary and sufficient. More than a single pair of sexes may seriously impair the chances for species continuity. The more sexes required for successful reproduction, the more difficult it becomes to bring them all together properly at just the right time.

If there is a weak link in the mating chain — as where one member of a reproductive triad is characteristically vulnerable to certain predators or other environmental severities — the future of the entire species would be jeopardized. Finally, it is not clear how, say, three sexes could shuffle the genes very much better than two.

There are no compelling reasons to exclude the possibility of a thriving population of alien multisexuals on another planet. That is, extraterrestrial multisexuality cannot be ruled out.

But requiring more than two sexes for reproductive activity seems to be an unnecessarily complicated solution to a problem elegantly solved by only two. An incredible number of variations can be played on the single theme of bisexuality.

For example, bisexuality — contrary to popular belief — does not demand the existence of distinct male and female forms. A case in point is the black mold Rhizopus nigricans, which displays an unusual type of sexual behavior known as “heterothallism. However, the two sexes are indistinguishable! There are no constant differences between members of opposite mating groups other than their reciprocal behavior when crossed.

Thus, it is impossible to designate one form of the black mold as male and the other as female. One can imagine a race of intelligent extraterrestrials, apparently unisexual to our undiscerning eyes but which actually practices heterothallic sex.

Such creatures would most certainly lack secondary sexual characteristics, those hormone-induced physical landmarks such as beards and breasts to which we humans are accustomed. They might even lack distinctive primary sexual characteristics such as internal or external gonads. Intersexuality is a state in which an organism is neither strictly female nor strictly male. Rather, it displays some alternate, intermediate, or variable condition that lies somewhere in between.

The first of these is illustrated by strain of fruit fly Drosophila which has three copies of all its chromosomes instead of the normal two. In most bisexual hereditary systems, each parent contributes one set of genes — including the sex-determining daphnias heart rate essay — to the offspring. But daphnia heart rate essay three sets, this special strain of fly can attain intermediate states of sexual expression.

Using artificial breeding techniques, any desired degree of intersexuality may be arranged: These insects, and various higher animals such as Html homework help often sterile.

Hermaphrodites represent an interesting Advantages of case study method ppt case of spatial intersexuality. A “simultaneous hermaphrodite” is an organism which possesses at once both female and male sex organs.

Ovaries and testes are present together in the same individual. Planarians, earthworms, annelids, sponges, hydras and snails exhibit this form of bisexuality. But the intersexual animal can be a sex-mosaic in daphnia heart rate essay as well as space. There are many organisms, of which the gypsy moth Lymantria is but one example, which start life as one sex and finish it as another.

This condition, in which the two sexes are separated temporally, is called temporal intersexuality or “sequential hermaphroditism. Protoandry is a system where an daphnia heart rate essay is first male, and later female; proterogyny is the converse, with young females metamorphosing into functional males as they age.

And there are many other more complicated daphnias heart rate essay. Populations of sea anemones, for example, consist only of females and simultaneous hermaphrodites, a condition known as gynodioecy. What would a temporal intersexual extraterrestrial be like?

We can take a few clues from the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex. Each individual crustacean is academic writing assistant male and female, but not at the same time. Newborn animals spend early life in a neuter stage, after which they pass through puberty and enter the first sexually active phase as functioning males. After a while, the maleness is exhausted.

Latent ovaries ripen into maturity, and the organism spends the remainder of its life as a full-fledged female. Eggs are shed by middle-aged mothers and fertilized by energetic youthful males who are still in the middle of their first cycle. It is a magnificent bisexual system, one that works quite well on this planet. No one is excluded from any phase of the reproductive process. This cannot fail to have major effects on the intensity and depth of interpersonal relationships among these beings.

In the case of such hermaphroditic aliens, the impact on the development of society, patterns of competition and daphnia heart rate essay, laws and government, and attitudes toward the young are scarcely imaginable. Science fiction writers have had a daphnia heart rate essay day with this theme. Berrill, Professor of Zoology at McGill University in Montreal, gives us some insight into the lifestyle of a temporal intersexual alien: But as troublemakers like their truly human counterparts they would undoubtedly be kept in place by a closed society of matriarchs, roughly equal in number to the males, each twice the weight and much older and wiser.

And not only wiser in a general way, but in the special sense of having each been a male herself, as understanding as a mother with a child and as little likely to put up with any nonsense, perhaps wistfully looking back to her youthful manhood.

Girlhood would bud as usual when masculinity had faded, with growth continuing and full female maturity yet to come. Little men browbeaten by large women who once had been little men themselves, or the women themselves, whether full-grown and breeding or not?

There is no Will writing service lancashire why bisexual alien hermaphrodites could not develop along a cycle in which young females transformed into old males. An example of this appears in the sword-tailed minnow Xiphophorus helleria teleost fish that bears live young much as the daphnias heart rate essay do. Xiphophorus females typically produce offspring until they are a few years old. Then, during a period of only a few daphnia heart rate essay weeks, they take on the characteristics of the male of the species.

They produce sperm and are capable of fertilizing females. Exhaustion of the ovaries is believed to trigger the changeover. We see that both male-first and female-first alien intersexuals may be common, if not abundant, among the many intelligent extraterrestrial races in the daphnia heart rate essay. How much different the world would be if sex were a matter of choice rather than accident or compulsion!

It would also matter a great deal whether the decision to switch was made by society, by pressing cultural or environmental exigencies, or by the individual himself who might exercise his sexual option at puberty.

Xenologists are convinced that optional sexuality is a real prospect for alien lifeforms because of the many times this system has arisen independently on Earth. One common transformation, found among starfish, the slug Limax maximusand the molluscan gastropods Crepidula plana and Patella, involves a changeover from male to female.

The cause in this case is environmental. When necessary to maintain proper ecological balance, some members of the colony will voluntarily transmute from male to simultaneous hermaphrodite. Soon thereafter, they blossom into full females without any trace of maleness remaining. Given the relatively major body alterations that occur during puberty in the higher mammals, it is not inconceivable that ETs might be capable of altering sex in response to the environment.

Extraterrestrials may also be able to change sex as a purely personal prerogative. The most notable examples include the oyster and the clam. The native oyster begins its life as a male. After a year or two, it may change to female much like a sequential hermaphrodite. But after the animal has “ovulated” deposited its ova into the mantle cavityit becomes “white sick” and reverts to maleness.

While still carrying its own embryos, the female oyster can fully retool as a working male in a matter of weeks. Male and female phases typically follow one another, in irregular cycles a few months long. This ensures that all fertilized eggs are the product of different parents, and eliminates the problem of accidental self-fertilization. Intelligent extraterrestrials modeled after the changeable oyster would probably experience fewer psychological conflicts, in many ways, than humans.

Each individual would have the advantage of knowing the world from the viewpoint of either sex. Furthermore, the opportunity to assume the role of either mate at any time could encourage what some earthlings might regard as a promiscuous social and cultural code of liberal sexual behavior. Their political, legal, religious and humanistic traditions would doubtless reflect this added layer of complexity. While the sexual identity of aliens may be regulatable either by the environment or by the individual as discussed above, it may also be subject to sociocultural management.

There is ample precedent for this on Earth. Numerous behavioral adaptations exist which allow colonies to regulate their sex ratio the fraction of each sex in the population.

These systems usually favor the female, and it is easy to see why. The female carries the egg. This is the basic raw material of reproductive activity.